Perspectives of development of the regional landscape park«Meotida»
У Donetsk region, which occupies only 4.4% of the country, home to 10% of the population and it is concentrated 23% of the industrial potential of Ukraine. Our territory has an extremely high technogenic and anthropogenic pressures, as well as intensive use of natural resources, which could not but affect the quality of the environment .
Destruction of Wildlife for the industrial and agricultural land development has reached a critical level in the dramatically reduced the area of natural habitat representatives of flora and fauna have changed their quantity and species composition. For this reason our region is particularly relevant issue is the preservation and restoration of valuable and typical natural complexes, primarily through the creation of objects of natural reserve fund, which should be key elements of the regional ecological networks .
Commandments, that is, full or partial exemption from the economic use of territories and water areas that have retained features of the indigenous nature, is the most effective tool in this endeavor.
Wildness protection plays an important role in the development of theoretical and practical activities addressing biological and landscape diversity in maintaining ecological balance in nature, forming the ideological orientation of humanity. Part of the area of natural reserve fund (NRF) in Ukraine is 4.2% of the total territory of Ukraine, and the rate of this indicator in Western Europe is in the range 8-10%. Awareness of the environmental implications of such a backlog at the state level is very high. Thus, the need to expand the area and increase the number of objects FNR our state is not in doubt and objections .
In this aspect, the work aimed to study the activities of the regional landscape park "Meotida" is relevant and has important conservation value.
1. Goal and objectives
- justification of the need to expand the territories of objects of natural reserve fund, in particular the feasibility of transition from a regional landscape park to the national natural park, and in the future, to the biosphere reserve;
- assessment of vegetation and wildlife RLP "Meotida";
- to study human impacts on the park and, if possible, make recommendations to reduce its extent;
- study the current state of recreational resources in the coastal zone of the Azov Sea, the definition of ways and mechanisms of regulation of recreational pressure within the regional landscape park "Meotida"
- develop an action plan in the context of the European Football Championship EURO-2012, as the RFP "Meotida" is included in the list of recommended tourists to visit;
- propose measures to develop the regional landscape park "Meotida" on the basis of the world's best solutions for environmental management
2. Description of the regional park landscape with a view topography, climatology and hydrology
RLP "Meotida" acquiring the current national status, situated on the coast of the Azov Sea. The park, with total area of 14,352 hectares, is located within Novoazovskiy, Pershotravneve Volodarsky and administrative areas.
Created, June 30, 2000. According to its geographical location is the southern part of the Azov lowland steppe. The coastline is characterized by a strongly meandering coastline. In the park take place p. Kalmis, Kalchik, Gruzskoy Elanchik, Kamyshevatka, Belosarayka, rivers belong to the plain type, predominantly rain-supply.
Figure 1 - Geographical position of regional landscape park "Meotida"
Vegetation of the park is very rich in unique flora, which is represented 49 saline formations, steppe, marsh, water, sand and synanthropic vegetation. The flora includes representatives of the Red Book of Ukraine. Mammals are represented by 50 species.
Regional Landscape Park "Meotida" Bird is, he can be proud of, on the basis of 11 - Summer activities can be stated as follows: in the territory formed a new colonial settlement pestronosoy tern nests numbering 60,000 - the largest in Europe, the number of black-headed gull in a time of increased park more than 5,000% - a record figure for Europe. But the most important indicator of the efficient operation of the park is the nesting success of curly pelicans on the tip of Crooked Spit, in 2011, out of 15 nests hatched chicks 30!
3. Description of enterprisers which can be environmental polluters of regional landscape park "Meotida"
The territory of the regional landscape park "Meotida" adjacent areas that their enterprises in industrial and agricultural complexes provide a material adverse effect on the environment. For a more detailed inspection of sewage contamination, air and soil to the selection of all the industrial and agricultural enterprises located on the territory adjacent to the NPP "Meotida" objects that have the greatest negative impact on the environment.
Figure 2 shows the spatial location of the major enterprises - pollutants that are harmful impact on the atmosphere, on the condition of the water basin and the soil.
Figure 2 - The location of the major polluters
The impact of such industry giants as BAT "Mariupol. Ilyich ", OAO" Iron & Steel Works "is a well-known, so special attention is paid to the agricultural complex objects as in the study area are 11 agricultural firms. So, in this study assessed the impact of agricultural enterprises on the environment as an example agrotseha number 5 DP "Ilyich Agro - Donbass". We calculated the emissions of harmful air pollutants from agro number 5 DP "Ilyich Agro-Donbass"
For the calculation of emissions of pollutants into the air from livestock farms used the method developed in accordance with federal law "On Environmental Protection" in order to create a unified methodological basis for determining the method of calculation discharge air pollutants from agricultural animal facilities. It allows you to calculate the power allocation (g/s, and t/year) animal husbandry or fur farms, based on the values of specific emissions.
The calculations take into account ten major air pollutants: bacteria, mercaptans (as metilmerkaptanom), amines (for dimethylamino), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, caproic acid (caproic acid on), carbonyl compound (aldehyde in propionic acid), dust, fur (wool, down ), sulfides (to DMS), phenols (in phenol).
This technique allows the calculation of the discharge of any of the ten considered the major air pollutants on animals and their metabolic products (excrement) on average per year, and for large pig farms - for any period of the year, according to the values of specific emissions.
Capacity should be calculated separation of pollutants from manure that is stored in navozonakopichuvachah. The basis of calculating the power allocation of pollutants into the atmosphere from large livestock farms and fur farms by this method supposed to experimentally confirmed by the example of pig farms usually ten percent or principle (law) Lindemann , about 10% of the energy supplied by each prior to the next trophic level . Under this rule, animals digest from 7 to 13% of the energy (or matter in energy terms). The remaining (87 - 93)% organic matter (animal excreta) will be recycled or disposed of microorganisms. With the animals learned 10% of feed as a result of enzymatic degradation of the animals directly into the atmosphere highlighted tenth of the pollutants.
4. Calculations of dispersion of pollutants in the air
According  determine the size of the current rectangle. He must be at least 50 of the highest altitudes of emission source. The length of the calculated area was 3000 m, width - 3000 m grid spacing is chosen according to enterprise-class, for our object (the class of the company - 1) was 250 m calculation of dispersion of emissions was carried out at wind speeds: 0.5, 1, 0, 1.5, 5 and 12 m / s, as in the weighted-average shares used dangerous speed value of 0.5, 1, 1.5.
5. Rationale for expansion area of the park
Rationale for the expansion areas of protected natural objects caused by the fact that virtually impossible to ensure effective protection of small, patchy areas are located. Moreover, today's realities are such that the conservation in Ukraine is an object that has a special state protection. Under these circumstances, a strategically desirable was the creation of large objects, including the previously formed small and unite in the area with limited economic activity, controlled recreation and commandments and, most importantly having a public service of the NRF .
6. System of events in the context of football champrionship Euro-2012.
One of the types of areas and objects of natural reserve fund of Ukraine, subject to the environmental regimes installed above the law and other In other regulations, is their use in recreational and other rivers reatsionnyh purposes.
In today's high degree of urbanization zation and socio-economic changes of society, dramatically increases the need for local affordable vacation, and their respective organization and operation. Analysis of recreational flows shows that residents of Donbass principal place of public entertainment is the Sea of Azov. In the administrative boundaries of the Donetsk region of its length is 151 km, of which the effect of landscape features around 100 km break down naturally. Therefore, campers and recreational facilities are concentrated on spits, and estuaries in the low beams. The same place mainly determine the speciation and diversity BoE landscape elements of the biota of the region and referred to the wetlands between tional values, which Ukraine is obliged to protect by virtue of their obligations and the action of current legislation.
Recreational potential of the Azov Sea respectively corresponds to the highest European standards. Favorable climatic conditions, comfortable sand and shell beaches, mud, breezes, and the ozone-enriched compounds of iodine, eral mineral water - this is an incomplete list of factors that provide a unique talassoterapevtichesky effect.
North Sea of Azov, Donetsk region is the most visited recreational area. Sea coast is a place of settled residence of over 600 thousand people with traditional forms of economic activity, Mami. It is here that races on a system of objects stationary recreation, which accumulate in the summer more than 90,000 holiday-makers. With proper reorganization of the Ukrainian environmental winner in rezhe can completely solve the recreational needs of the country.
The use of the coast of the Sea of Azov implementation mented in accordance with the functional zoning of the parkderivations based on the research and determine the level of recreational pressure on various types and areas of the landscape.
Landscaped areas are complexes of unique natural systems, possessing significant natural potential. At present, there was an urgent need to develop new methods of complex regionaltion analysis and forecast of management of recreational Raman in these ecosystems, which is a complex and poorly understood problem.
Seaside location led to diversitymanifold landscapes of the park. It should be noted that to date there is no universally accepted classification of the class landscapes, but that landscape elements and determine the characteristics of the recreational use of the area RLP "Meotida" .
Uniqueness of the landscape of the area is the diversity of its forms. Here is presented an extensive network of channels, estuaries, lagoons, showed Islands, a large diversity of morfogidrograficheskih and geomorphological elements: bedrock outcrops, riverine and floodplain prospace, coastal tracts, spit. Therefore, RLP "Meotida" is included in the list of facilities recommended for tourists to visit in the context of the European Football Championship EURO-2012.
Developed route "Donetsk -" Meotida "- Donetsk, with a total length of 240 km.
Figure 7 - Map of the tour route
The route runs through a number of interesting European tourist sites. Starobeshevskiy region - the birthplace of farmers, miners and power engineers. In town you can visit the house-museum of the first female tractor driver P. Angelina. Telmanovskiy area, the main attraction, and pride which is the Holy Transfiguration Church in c. Konkovo. At the temple you can see the stone with the imprint of the foot of the Virgin Mother of God and the source of the water temperature in all seasons +10 ° C. Future path lies through Novoazovsk area in which there is a second branch of the Ukrainian Steppe Reserve - "Khomutovskaya steppe." A few kilometers from RLP "Meotida" is the village. Sedov, named after Georgy Sedov (1877 - 1914) - Russian polar explorer and hydrographer. In the village there is a historical museum of pioneer in the Arctic, where you can see the exposition of the modern development of the North, documents, photographs and valuable relics.
After two hours of exciting travel offers tourists gaze RLP "Meotida", with its primitive nature, pristine sandy beaches, warm sun and warm sea. The result of these activities will be: acquaintance with the basic wealth of our land, which will increase the country's image, as well as evidence that the Donbass - is not only the old industrial region, but also a region that is addressing environmental issues and development of natural-reserved fund of Ukraine. Moreover, as a result of this activity will be to calculate the economic effect of the excursions, it will be a source of additional funding for the administration of the territory and the development of ecotourism.
In this paper, the activities of the regional landscape of the park is considered in various aspects.
Based on the orographic, geoclimatic vydovogo characteristics and diversity can be seen that the area "Maeotis" is an ecologically valuable, it revived in the unique complexes of objects of the coastal zone of the Azov Sea.
It is shown that a significant impact on the park provide metallurgical enterprises, namely, of "Iron & Steel Works» and JSC «Mariupol. Lenin, "and agricultural facilities.
Rationale for the expansion areas of protected natural objects caused by the fact that virtually impossible to ensure effective protection of small, patchy areas are located.
In the future we plan to study the ecological diversity of the park in the field, to calculate the indices of species richness over existing methods:
- Methods for dilution
- The geometric series
- The log number
- Broken stick model
From the above methods to determine which approach is most useful for the study area, also find
- Shannon diversity index
- The index of Brillouin
-The index of Simpson,
that will apply the measures of diversity in environmental monitoring and conservation. In both cases, diversity is seen as synonymous with environmental quality. Its index is widely used to assess the effects of pollution and disturbance of ecosystems. It is important to be clear, indicates whether the enhancement of biological diversity to improve the environmental quality of the environment .
For the moment of essay writing, master's work is not finished yet. The final conclusion is expected for December 2012. The full text of the work and materials on the subject may be granted by the author or his supervisor after the specified date.
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